How to hypothesize
Determine what you have is variable
The hypothesis should establish a possible link between the two variables: the independent and dependent.
Independent variable – this is what influences the changes. In the above examples, the independent variable is the gender (male or female), and type of fertilizers (organic or chemical-based).
Dependent variable – it is something that affects the independent variable. It is in direct proportion to the independent variable. Continuing the theme of the examples given above, the dependent variable is the impact exerted by caffeine or fertilizer.
The hypothesis must be installed no more than one relationship. The most important thing – to have a single independent variable. If the independent variables is greater, you will not be able to find out, with the result that actually occur studied phenomenon.
Pull out the general hypothesis
Enough reflection on the subject of your study and variables, write down your first thoughts about a possible link variables. This should be a simple declarative statement.
At this stage, it is not necessary to formulate thoughts precisely and in detail.
In these examples, one of the hypotheses can claim that caffeine has a different effect depending on the gender of the person. That is, the general hypothesis will be: “Caffeine has different effects on men and women.” Another hypothesis would be the general assumption about the relationship of plant growth and the type of fertilizer. The general hypothesis: “The pace of growth of plants depends on the type of fertilizer.”
The hypotheses are directional and non-directional. The non-directional hypothesis simply states in general terms about the impact of one variable on another. In the direction of the hypothesis given more information on the nature (or “direction”) linkages, in particular about how exactly one variable affects another.
Referring to our examples. Non-directional hypothesis might be: “There is a relationship between the person’s gender and how quickens the pulse from amount of consumed caffeine” and “There is a relationship between the type of fertilizer and a rate of growth of the plant.”
Using the same example, the hypothesis can be directed: “After the caffeine in women pulse quickened stronger than men” and “Plants fertilized with chemical fertilizers grow faster than plants fertilized with organic fertilizers.”
If in used literature you find a basis for the nomination directional hypothesis, then use it. So you will have more data. This is especially true of physical sciences: non-directional hypotheses are often recognized as insufficiently accurate.
After writing original idea on paper, you can make concretization for it. Try to formulate a hypothesis as accurately as possible, to make it clear exactly which approval will be subject to check, and what will be provided to prove the relationship between the variables.
If necessary, specify a particular set of (people or things), which regards this hypothesis. For example, if you are only interested in the impact of caffeine on the elderly, the hypothesis can be as follows: “In women over 65 years of heart rate is higher than that of men of the same age.” If you are interested in the effect of fertilizer only on tomatoes, the hypothesis might be: “The growth of tomatoes, which are treated with a chemical fertilizer for 3 months accelerated in comparison with tomatoes that will process organic fertilizers.”
The hypothesis have to be audited
The hypothesis to be put forward hypothesis about the relationship between two variables, which in fact can be seen and explore. If you can not do this, then you need to start all over again.
For example, you do not want to conjecture was: “Older people think differently.” In such a hypothesis is not a reality. It does not specify: who is in the category of older, what they think differently, and how you can tell if they think usually anyway. As a result, this hypothesis can neither be proved nor disproved based on real observations. Even if we know how you need someone to think, impossible to observe his “another way of thinking” .
Express hypothesis adopted in compliance with all rules and regulations
Now that so much work done, write down their hypothesis in its final version. It should be clearly traceable relationship between the independent and dependent variables, and it must be framed using scientific symbols.
Hypotheses indicated by the letter “H” and a number, followed by a colon. Each research project, containing several hypotheses, must be assigned its own number.
The first example could be formulated as follows: “H1: After drinking caffeinated beverages carbonated women over 65 years of heart rate will have higher than men of the same age.” You can then write in their research work another hypothesis: “H2: After the use of women over 65 years of caffeinated carbonated beverage sweating they will be higher than that of men of the same age.” Using a second example, it would be possible to write so: “H1: In the first 3 months of growth of tomatoes, which are processed by chemical fertilizers, growth will be higher than tomatoes, which will process organic fertilizer.” Later, in the second hypothesis can be put forward: “H2: In the first three months of the growth of corn, which has been treated by chemical fertilizers, growth will be higher tomatoes treated with organic fertilizer.”
Sometimes the hypothesis formulated in the form of assumptions “if-then”. For example: “If children consume caffeine, the frequency will increase their heart rate.”
Formulate the null hypothesis or conjecture
Then you need to establish proof of the fallacy of your hypothesis and formulate them as hypotheses. This is called the null hypothesis.
It may seem strange, but the researchers never look for evidence to support the correctness or incorrectness of their hypothesis. Instead, they argue that the reverse hypothesis is not true. If the reverse may be true, this means that their hypothesis is likely true.
Let us return to our familiar examples. For example, we are engaged in the study of the impact of caffeine on the heart rate in men and women. Proof of the falsity of H1 could serve as a fact that the effects of caffeine on male was stronger than women, or between them at all would not be any difference. If you check the influence exerted by different types of fertilizers, the proof of the falsity of your hypothesis may be the fact that regardless of the type of fertilizer – organic or inorganic, the plants grow at the same rate, or the use of organic fertilizer plants grew faster.
The null hypothesis is denoted by the letter “H” and the number 0, followed by a colon. In order to distinguish between the null hypothesis, if more than one, use lowercase letters.
For example: “H0a: Heart rate in men older than 65 years who’ve also mentioned caffeinated carbonated beverage to be higher than in women of the same age” and “H0b: Heart rate in men and women older than 65 years will be about the same after drinking caffeinated carbonated beverage” . Or, continuing the theme of the second example: “H0a: In the first 3 months of growth of tomatoes, which will process organic fertilizers will be higher than the growth of tomatoes, which are treated with a chemical fertilizer” and “H0b: Regardless of the type of fertilizer – the chemical or organic basis, in the first 3 month growth of tomatoes will be about the same.
Test your hypothesis
Check it with observation or experiment. Hopefully, the results will allow evidence to refute the null hypothesis, thus confirming your hypothesis.
No need to reinvent the wheel. Studying literature, looking for such studies, which are relevant to your chosen topic and try to rely on the data obtained by other researchers.
Try to formulate a hypothesis so that it has a particular, but not so much that it can not be applied to something that is beyond the scope of the experiment conducted by you.
Try to write something that will be interesting to most people around you. No one is interested in such a hypothesis: “Three of my friends will be able to be wrung out a different number of times.”
It is not necessary to voice their feelings and express their opinions. Hypothesis – is not a matter of personal considerations, and such revolutions as “I think”, “I think” or “I believe” – not used.