American Political System
The Views on Political Science
Politics is one of those subjects that have been widely discussed across America for many years now. Mainly discussed by people, they have their negative as well as positive views on politics. Politics is simply individuals who are very knowledgeable who create strategies to obtain power to positions such as businesses, universities, or the government. Some people have created distinct journals to determine why politics is the way it is now. The journals of American Political Science Review, Political Psychology, Political Behavior, and Presidential Studies Quarterly all have determined that there is certain idea that has effects on politics.
First of all, each article has a purpose and a goal that researchers are trying to get out of them. The first article which is titled as, bad for Men, Better for Women: The Impact of Stereotypes during Negative Campaigns from the Political Behavior Journal is based on whether negative advertisement on the gender of candidates has an effect on citizens and the way they vote. From common gender stereotypes, the main goal is to determine if negative campaigning on women has more of an effect to citizens rather than on negative campaigning for males (Fridkin, Kenney, and Woodall 2008). The next article Voters, Emotions, and Memory, which comes from the Political Behavior Journal, establishes that emotional responses or significant information that voters take in at the time of the election determines how an individual votes for their representatives (Civettini and Redlawsk 2009). The goal of this article is to decide whether if emotional responses, information that is negative or positive, and if anxiety has an influence on how voters vote on candidates. The next article Process Preferences and American Politics: What the People Want Government to Be, comes from the American Political Science Review, is about how the people view the government and their mood about the government, how they judge the parties, government policies, and preferences, and how the people want the government to be ran. The purpose of this article is to inform individuals how displeased the people are with the government and how the government can improve their policies and preferences to maintain a good relationship with people (Hibbing and Theiss-Morse 2001). The last article Constitutional Character: virtues and vices in Presidential Leadership, which comes from Presidential Studies Quarterly, talks about what traits and qualities a president must have in order to be successful and constructive for their country. The goal of this article is to show how the president uses certain qualities, respond to certain criteria, and how the president can sustain a positive view among the nation.
Additionally, each article has done several different experiments and has come to various arguments. Bad for Men, Better for Women: The Impact of Stereotypes During Negative Campaigns came to the conclusion that stereotypes lead people to view men as aggressive, forceful, and independent; whereas women are seen as kind, helpful, sympathetic, and passive (Fridkin, Kenney, and Woodall 2008). Also male candidates receive more negative evaluations than female candidates that measures in trait assessments, affective evaluations, issue scores, and vote choices; however in an uncivil advertisement it is more damaging to a male than a female candidate compared to civil advertisement where it does not vary (Fridkin, Kenney, and Woodall 2008). Finally, men are looked at as more knowledgeable to issues like, foreign policy and the economy, compared to females who are knowledgeable in health care and education (Fridkin, Kenney, and Woodall 2008). Voters, Emotions, and Memory concludes that voters tend to remember more negative information about a candidate rather than positive, but anxiety and enthusiasm represents both the negative and positive emotions (Civettini and Redlawsk 2009). Although inaccurate information impacts voters, anxiety leads to a more careful processing and a higher quantity and quality of memories (Civettini and Redlawsk 2009). Process and Preferences and American Politics gives a mindset of how people view the government. People view the government as dishonest and untrustworthy, that political parties are identically the same with different names, and the government does not know what anyone wants (Hibbing and Theiss-Morse 2001). Also people feel that policies should be a balance of liberal and conservative ideas and that decision making should be on a balance level between elected officials and ordinary people; however people think it is dominated by officeholders (Hibbing and Theiss-Morse 2001). Constitutional Character: Virtues and Vices in Presidential Leadership conclude that a president has to have several characteristics in order to be lucrative. These attributes consist of Sensitivity to Rights, Respect for Due Process, Tolerance of Opposition, Willing to Justify Decisions, and Commitment to Candor (Thompson 2010). All these qualities are constructive although the most important quality of a president possesses is the sense of responsibility. This means that the president takes all responsibilities for all positive or negative actions and by doing so the president gains the trust, gratitude, and obedience of the people and is looked at as a true constitutional leader (Thompson 2010).
Furthermore, each article has some consensus or near consensus and some have arguments or debates. In Bad for Men, Bad for Women: The Impact of Stereotypes During Negative Campaigns agree that women politicians are seen as willing to compromise, orientated toward people, and more likely to seek consensus whereas male candidates are viewed as more assertive, quick to action, tough-minded, and more likely to seek aggressively political solutions (Fridkin, Kenney, and Woodall 2008). Also women candidates are able to deal with more compassionate issues such as poverty, health care, the elderly, education and environment, and family issues while men candidates succeed in issues such as economy, defense, foreign policy, and agriculture. In spite of this, the biggest debate was on the candidates. Citizens form impressions about candidates names, whether they are male or female (Fridkin, Kenney, and Woodall 2008). Citizens who see female names as candidates tend to sway away from them and become fonder to the male candidates. In Voters, Emotions, and Memory agreed that information from the past or encountered during a campaign was recalled in memory from voters (Civettini and Redlawsk 2009). This means that information through the news, on ballots, and in the public is remembered by voters when it comes to Election Day. Also information that generates an effective response will be more likely to be recalled than information that does not (Civettini and Redlawsk 2009). However, the disagreement is that there is a possibility that inaccurate memories influence vote choice (Civettini and Redlawsk 2009). In Preferences and American Policies: What the People Want Government to Be agreed that people are much less pleased with the government’s processes than its policies (Hibbing and Theiss-Morse 2001). Another point that was made that millions of people are convinced the parties are similar to “Tweedledee and Tweedledum” (Hibbing and Theiss-Morse 2001). The main disagreement is how the people should be more involved in making the policies. People feel they want a direct democracy, where people make the policies, although they do not want all the power and some given to the government (Hibbing and Theiss-Morse 2001). In Constitutional character: Virtues and Vices in Presidential Leadership the major agreement is that a president must possess beneficial qualities in order the run the nation correctly and successfully. These qualities may be how he or she treats the people, react to rights, responsibilities and due process, and how willingly the President is to open competition and how he or she reacts to other challenges. One of the hugest debates about a President is how he acts in a personal life compared to a public life. In a personal life Presidents are not always responsible whereas in a public life we should expect more of sense of responsibility and they should be accountable for the failures of their subordinates (Thompson 2010). One last argument that citizens must realize that all Presidents are liars however all lies are not created equal (Thompson 2010).
Finally, each article has an abundance of information, however there could be more research done for future references. In the article Bad for Men, Better for Women: The Impact of Stereotypes during Negative Campaigns talks about how stereotypes affect campaigns, it can be possible that race can play a huge factor in future campaigns. Seeing that Obama is the first African American President, there will be different races as candidates in the future and race can change how individuals vote, therefore in the near future research needs to be done to determine if race has a factor in the future elections. In Voters, Emotions, and Memory only talks about emotions and memory that causes the way people vote. For the future research, it can be determine that there are more reasons that cause voters to vote the way they do. In Preferences and American Politics: What People Want Government to Be discusses how the people think about the government and how they want the government ran. In the future, more power should be given to the people to explore greater ideas, meaning give the people power to make policies, preferences, and laws. The nation is made up of people without the people we have nothing, for that reason people know what they want and they could be more satisfied with the government if they had a bigger role in decision making. In Constitutional Character: Virtues and Vices in Presidential Leadership, a president is expected to have certain qualities to make them glorious. For future references evaluations about the president qualities and how he or she is doing their job should be processed. In doing so, it will establish if the president is being a productive leader that the people want in office.
The journals of American Political Science Review, Political Psychology, Political Behavior, and Presidential Studies Quarterly all had an effect on politics. There are numerous positives and negatives that come out of political science. Political science is based on opinions from people and people who have an enormous amount of power. One thing that will be known about political science is that it is constantly changing and it will never be same in the future outlook.
Civettini, Andrew J. W. and Redlawsk, David P. “Voters, Emotions, and Memory.” Political Psychology 30.1 (2009): 125-150.
Fridkin, Kim L., Kenney, Patrick J., and Woodall, Gina S. “Bad for Men, Better for Women: The Impact of Stereotypes during Negative Campaigns.” Political Behavior 31.1 (2009) 53-77.
Hibbing, John R., and Theiss-Morse, Elizabeth. “Process Preferences and American Politics: What the People Want Government to Be.” American Political Science Review 95.1 (2001) 145.
Thompson, Dennis F. “Constitutional Character: Virtues and Vices in Presidential Leadership.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 40.1 (2010) 15-23.